How to use your OpenPGP SmartCard for SSH Authentication

How to use your PGP key and OpenPGP Smart Card to authenticate with SSH.


To use your subkey, you need to export the public key of your authentication subkey, in a format that ssh can use.

If you don't know the fingerprint of your authentication subkey you can open up --edit-key to find out. In this case, we are editing the root key, so use that fingerprint.

[email protected]ptop:~$  gpg2 --edit-key 2F95015B
gpg (GnuPG) 2.0.29; Copyright (C) 2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

Secret key is available.

pub  4096R/2F95015B  created: 2016-01-19  expires: never       usage: SC
                     trust: ultimate      validity: ultimate
sub  4096R/225DF0AD  created: 2016-01-19  expires: 2017-01-18  usage: S
sub  4096R/0F4A1F36  created: 2016-01-19  expires: 2017-01-18  usage: E
sub  4096R/5DA2A8B2  created: 2016-01-19  expires: 2017-01-18  usage: A
[ultimate] (1). Owen Kelly <[email protected]>


In the output of that command we get a list of all the subkeys, and what they can be used for. Look for the subkey with usage: A. In this case it's fingerprint is 5DA2A8B2.

Type quit to exit --edit-key

There's a great program called gpgkey2ssh which does exactly what it says. It takes a gpg key, and formats it for use with ssh. I've trimmed the output below, but as it's your public key it isn't secret. You should grab the output of this function and add it to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys on every server you need to ssh into.

[email protected]:~$ gpgkey2ssh 5DA2A8B2
ssh-rsa AAAAB...== [email protected]


First add support for ssh in gpg-agent:

[email protected]:~$ nano ~/.gnupg/gpg-agent.conf

default-cache-ttl 600
max-cache-ttl 7200

Add the following to your .bashrc or .zshrc profile:

if [ -f "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info" ]; then
  . "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info"
  export SSH_AUTH_SOCK
export GPG_TTY=$(tty)

This will start gpg-agent for you.

Now we need to get ssh-agent and gpg-agent talking to each other.

First run ssh-add -L to list all identities in ssh-agent.

[email protected]:~$ ssh-add -L
ssh-rsa AAAABadadasdasdasda...truncated /Users/owen/.ssh/id_rsa

If you get back a response pointing to a file in the ~/.ssh directory, it means you currently have a ssh keypair setup. We need to unlink this from ssh-agent in order to use your gpg keypair`.

Type ssh-add -D to remove all identities in ssh-agent.

[email protected]:~$ ssh-add -D
All identities removed.

If you run ssh-add -L you should be told there are no identities now.

[email protected]:~$ ssh-add -L
The agent has no identities.

Now we're ready to being using gpg-agent with ssh-agent.

[email protected]:~$ ssh-add -L
error fetching identities for protocol 1: agent refused operation
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC... == cardno:000000000000

Start a new terminal window and ssh into the server you just added your public key to.

If you don't see your key with carno:000000000... on the end you need to restart gpg-agent. You only need to do this now though, as the next time the system boots, the new gpg-agent.conf will be loaded.

To restart gpg-agent, first stop it, then start a new one.

sudo pkill -9 gpg-agent

gpg-agent --daemon